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May 13, 2014

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: frequently asked questions — amastyleinsider @ 1:49 pm
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Q: I cannot find anything in the AMA Manual of Style about how to cite an article in a magazine. Please help.

A: You are correct that we do not address citations to magazines, primarily because the material we focus on is more scholarly. However, you could extrapolate from the information on how to cite a journal article (see section 3.11). Here is an example of citation of a magazine article:

Angell R. This old man: life in the nineties. New Yorker. February 17&24, 2014:60-65.

You’ll notice that although we prefer giving the year;volume number(issue number):inclusive pages in our citations to journal articles, some magazines do not use volume and issue numbers but instead rely on the issue date. This seems to be true of the New Yorker, and this article was in a double issue, so you’ll see that I have suggested using issue date:inclusive page numbers.

Q: What is the best way to send a question to you regarding the content of the style manual?

A: You may write to the style manual at stylemanual@jamanetwork.org.

Q: For package insert references, many times the manufacturer and marketing company are the same. However, if they are not, which company should be listed in the reference citation?

A: It might be helpful in the case of a manufacturer and a marketer to list both. In this case, you could separate them by a semicolon:

Onglyza [package insert]. Princeton, NJ: Bristol-Myers Squibb Co; Wilmington, DE: AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP; July 2009.—Cheryl Iverson, MA

March 19, 2014

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: frequently asked questions — amastyleinsider @ 2:41 pm
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Q: Do superscript reference numbers go before or after colons? What about periods and commas?

A: Superscript reference numbers go before colons and semicolons and after commas and periods. See section 3.6.

Q: When will the next edition of the AMA Manual of Style be published?

A: We have begun work on the next (11th) edition but do not yet have a projected publication date. I think 2016 is realistic. In the meantime, I hope you avail yourself of the online updates, which provide policy changes, etc. Those are free, if you do not have an online subscription. The monthly quizzes (which are free to subscribers) are also a good way (between editions) to see more examples.

Q: On PowerPoint slides, how do you recommend citing reference sources: on each slide that is not the presenter’s own, or at the end of the presentation?

A: At present, our style manual does not address style questions related to PowerPoint presentations; however, we are considering adding a few guidelines on this in the next edition. For now, I would suggest adding the reference sources on each slide, as a footer. Because the slides are likely to be pulled apart from the entire presentation and used by others, having the source with the content seems advisable.—Cheryl Iverson, MA

November 4, 2013

Quiz Bowl: Electronic References

Filed under: quizzes — amastyleinsider @ 9:57 am
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From the publication of the first edition of the AMA Manual of Style in 1962 to the publication of the current 10th edition in 2007, the guidelines in the manual that have arguably evolved the most are those on references. From a world of print-only publications to today’s plethora of electronic sources, the changing landscape of what sources to cite and how to cite them has becoming increasingly complex. This month’s style quiz offers a sample of electronic references.

As an introduction to the full quiz, edit the following reference for an article published online head of print:

ZeniJ, Abujaber S, Flowers P, Pozzi F, Snyder-Mackler L. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2013 Jul 25. [Epub ahead of print] Biofeedback to Promote Movement Symmetry After Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Feasibility Study. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4657

Highlight for the answer:

Zeni J, Abujaber S, Flowers P, Pozzi F, Snyder-Mackler L. Biofeedback to promote movement symmetry after total knee arthroplasty: a feasibility study [published online July 25, 2013]. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. doi:10.2519/jospt.2013.4657.

If an article is published online ahead of print publication, it may appear in 1 of 3 ways: (1) posted without editing; (2) edited and posted as it will appear in print, only ahead of the print publication (with or without print pagination); or (3) edited and posted as part of a specific issue of the journal. The date the article was published should be placed in brackets after the title and phrase as “published online” not “published online ahead of print” (§3.15.1, Online Journals, pp 64-67 in print).

The full quiz (available to subscribers at www.amamanualofstyle.com) provides examples of online articles, CD-ROMs, websites, software, databases, and more. Good luck!—Laura King, MA, ELS

July 10, 2013

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: frequently asked questions,references — amastyleinsider @ 11:11 am
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Q: Section 3.12.5 describes how to cite books with editors and translators but there is no example showing how to cite a book with both an editor and an editor in chief. Should only the editor in chief be cited if one is given for a book?

A: No, I would not exclude other editors’ names if an editor in chief is given. You could extrapolate from the example in section 3.12.5 that shows how to cite an editor and a consulting editor. In that example, repeated below, just replace “consulting ed” by “ed in chief.”

Klaassen CD. Principles of toxicology and treatment of poisoning. In: Hardman JG, Limbird LE, eds. Gilman AG, consulting ed. Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics. 10th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Book Co; 2001:67-80.

Q: When you cite an online reference that will require a password to access the reference, should you include in the reference citation some indication that access is restricted?

A: We wrestled with this question when preparing the current edition and decided against it because different users would have different access rights.

Q: When citing the same work 2 or more times in a manuscript, do you continue to use the same superscript reference number, or do you use a different superscript reference number and relist the work multiple times in the reference list?

A: It is our style to give a reference one number and to refer to it by that number every time it’s cited. This policy is not stated specifically in the manual and perhaps in the next edition it should be. In the current edition, page 44 discusses the situation in which an author might want to cite different (and specific) page numbers from the same reference. The style used is based on the assumption that a reference number “sticks” throughout a manuscript.

Q: Your manual (pp 22 and 183 in print) advises that clinical trials should be registered and that the URL of the registry and the identifying number should be published as a part of the manuscript. Is this still true if the clinical trial has been terminated?

A: Yes, the identifier should be given even if the clinical trial has been terminated. Anyone who chooses to go to the URL provided will be able to read about the trial and will also see there that it has been terminated.—Cheryl Iverson, MA

April 23, 2013

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: frequently asked questions — amastyleinsider @ 2:18 pm
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Q: Would you hyphenate “white coat hypertension”?

A: We would follow the latest edition of Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary. The 11th edition recommends inclusion of a hyphen: white-coat hypertension.

Q: If 2 footnote symbols appear next to each other in a table, should any punctuation be introduced between them?

A: Yes. As with the policy for citation of a reference citation and a footnote symbol side by side (see page 95 in the print), add a comma. So, you might have superscript a,b; or superscript a,c-e.

Q: I would like to know how to cite your 10th edition in the style recommended by the 10th edition.

A: Glad to oblige:

Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 10th ed. New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2007.

Q: Section 3.10 advises beginning the subtitle of a journal article cited in a reference list with a lowercase letter. Is this true even if the title ends with a question mark?

A: Yes. Here is an example, edited to style:

Mayer AP, Files JA, Ko MG, Blair JE. Do socialized gender differences have a role in mentoring? academic advancement of women in medicine. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83(2):204-207.

The same policy would apply if the title were to end with an exclamation point, although those are rare in scholarly article titles!—Cheryl Iverson, MA

October 25, 2012

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: frequently asked questions — amastyleinsider @ 9:07 am
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Q: What is the source for the statement in section 11.10.5 that “The term sexual preference  should be avoided because it implies a voluntary choice of sexual orientation not supported by the scientific literature”?

A: The source is what is shown as reference 20:  Maggio’s Talking About People:  A Guide to Fair and Accurate Language. This was published by Oryx Press in 1997 and we are not aware of a newer edition.

Q: Is there a list in the manual, or in a source recommended by the manual, as to when it is appropriate to refer to an individual as “Dr”? It is sometimes difficult to know if a non-US degree is equivalent to an MD degree.

A: Great question. We do include a few of these in the manual (eg, MBBS), but you might try Google. It can provide helpful information on various degrees.

Q: Would you use “e-visit” or “E-visit” when it appears at the beginning of a sentence?

A: Based on the advice we give in 10.7 for “e-mail” (use “E-mail” if it appears at the beginning of a sentence), I would use “E-visit” at the start of a sentence.

Q: How do you cite the online AMA Manual of Style?

A:  I would recommend the following, based on 3.15.2 in the manual:

Iverson C, Christiansen S, Flanagin A, et al.  AMA Manual of Style:  A Guide for Authors and Editors.  10th ed.  New York, NY:  Oxford University Press; 2007.  www.amamanualofstyle.com.  Published online 2009.

Cheryl Iverson, MA

September 7, 2012

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: abbreviations,frequently asked questions,references — amastyleinsider @ 11:55 am
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Q: I am writing a manuscript in which I want to include the dates that a list of products were first marketed. The database from which I got the information is a subscriber-only database. This seems to be the only place that has the information I want to use. Are such subscriber-only databases allowable to include in a reference list?

A: This question was one we had to address when working on the chapter on reference citation style and the answer we decided on was YES, these may be included in a reference list. (We did not address it specifically for a subscriber-only database, but this question also arises with reference to journal articles that are password-protected/available only to subscribers.) The rationale was 2-fold. First, if there is another place that the information can be obtained that is not behind a “wall,” then of course you might want to consider using that reference instead of the one that is not easily available to all. But, as you indicated in your case, sometimes there is no “free” site for the information you want to reference, and it’s important to acknowledge your source—even if access to it is limited. Second, thinking back to the days before people were citing much online material (and those days were not that long ago, were they?), reference lists frequently cited books that might be out of print or other sources that might not allow easy access. This doesn’t seem a reason not to include the material, even though it might be an annoyance to online readers to find that the source is not freely available, so YES.

Q: How would you cite a webinar?

A: I would extrapolate from the style recommended for citing an audio presentation:

Christiansen S. Medical copyediting with AMA style [webinar]. December 15, 2011.  http://www.copyediting.com.  Accessed April 6, 2012.

Q: In section 14.12, you state “Use the abbreviation [of units of time] only in a virgule construction and in tables and line art.” Does this mandate the use or merely allow the use of these abbreviations in these instances?

A: The answer is short. It does not mandate so much as allow, although units of measure are almost always abbreviated in column heads and stubs in tables and on axes in line art in our journals because of space considerations.—Cheryl Iverson, MA

 

August 17, 2012

URLs Gone Bad: Fixing Broken Links

Filed under: references — amastyleinsider @ 1:16 pm
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Link rot is a term that describes the tendency of URLs to fail over time because the page has been deleted or moved. Because of the lag between writing and publication, link rot can be a problem even before content is posted, so all URLs should be checked for dead links.

URL-Checking Software

A number of tools exist that check and verify URLs. Well-written URL-checking software can report dead links and some redirected (forwarded) links. Even if a URL appears to work and is not obviously broken, however, the content of the page may have changed, and it may no longer be what the author intended to cite. Because of this issue and others explained below, it’s not possible to detect all bad links automatically. Therefore, a copy editor should check all URLs manually at least once during the publication process, verifying that the content of the page matches the citation context.

The Link Works, but Is the Content Right?

The content of a web page can change at any time. For example, many government agencies report statistics regularly, archiving or deleting the old report once the new one becomes available. Here’s a reference from the Administration on Aging:

Department of Health and Human Services. A profile of older Americans: 2007. http://www.aoa.gov/AoARoot/Aging_Statistics/Profile/index.aspx. Accessed April 7, 2012.

This URL is valid, but the title on the page is now “A Profile of Older Americans: 2011.” As you scroll down the page there are links to previous profiles, including the 2007 version cited by the author, which now has a new URL:

http://www.aoa.gov/AoAroot/Aging_Statistics/Profile/2007/index.aspx

In this case no change is really needed; the URL is still valid, and the report the author referenced is available from this same page. If there’s any doubt about whether the content of the URL is what the author meant to cite, he or she should review and verify changed URLs (assuming time permits).

Broken Link? Google It

Here’s a sentence from an author-submitted manuscript that includes a broken URL:

To search for gene network pathways, we searched BioCarta, KEGG, and Reactome pathways and available software programs (https://www.affymetrix.com/products/software/compatible/pathway.affx).

A good tool to investigate and repair a broken link is Google. Search the title or a detailed description, in this case “Affymetrix compatible gene network pathways software.” The first result of this search,

http://www.affymetrix.com/partners_programs/genechip_compatible/genechip_compatible.affx

looks promising, and, if you click on the Pathway tab on this page, the heading is “Pathway/Network Analysis,” indicating that this new URL fits the citation context well.

It’s Really Broken: Keep the URL but Kill the Hyperlink

If a title or detailed description search fails to find a match for a source with a broken URL, ask the author to provide another source or another way to access the same source. If there’s not time to consult the author or if the author replies that there is no other way to access the reference, leave the URL in place to indicate how the author accessed the source, but remove the hyperlink.

Here’s an example from another author-submitted reference list, with the URL in place but the hyperlink removed:

Kittler H. Dermatoscopy: introduction of a new algorithmic method based on pattern analysis for diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions. Dermatopathol Practical Conceptual. 2007;13(1). http://www.derm101.com/dynaweb/resources/milestones/49057/@Generic__BookView/49067;cs=chapview.wv;ts=chaptoc.tv;chap=dpc1301a03. Accessed February 15, 2010.

A detailed title search doesn’t help in this case. There are no obvious errors in the URL. Also, entering the author’s name in the site search box provided at the home page, http://www.derm101.com/, produces this result: “The term ‘kittler’ was not found.”

Typos in URLs

Copy editors must also be alert for typos, especially errors in punctuation. These are common, and some of them, like the first example below, can be spotted and repaired before checking the reference:

Bad URL: http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov/Hospital/Search/Welcomeasp

Good URL: http://www.hospitalcompare.hhs.gov/Hospital/Search/Welcome.asp

Bad URL: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal-pmed.0050120

Good URL: http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pmed.0050120

Bad URL: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm

Good URL: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhanes.htm

Redirected URLs

If, when you attempt to verify a URL, the landing page has a URL different than the one you tested, the URL has been redirected, or forwarded. Redirection is used most often to allow URLs to be updated without breaking the old URLs. The cited URL jumps automatically to the updated URL. To identify redirected URLs, check the browser address window. Here are 2 examples:

Cited URL: http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbookch4-hepb.aspx Redirected to: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/hepatitis-b.htm

The Rule: When URLs are redirected, it’s preferable to cite the destination URL, both because redirection is sometimes temporary and because redirection sometimes fails.

The Exception to the Rule: Another tye of redirection is the use of vanity URLs to promote a product or a brand. For example, the vanity URL http://jama.com redirects to http://jama.jamanetwork.com/journal.aspx. Unlike updated URL redirects, vanity URLs should be left intact.

More Information

See §3.15, Electronic References in the AMA Manual of Style (pp 64-67 in print) for more information about the correct format for URLs in electronic references.—Paul Frank

August 8, 2012

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: references,usage — amastyleinsider @ 2:57 pm
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Q: How can a user of your online manual tell if use of a particular word (such as namely) is discouraged?

A:  The first place to look might be chapter 11, Correct and Preferred Usage. But the word you used as an example is not included therein. Or you could try a search in the online manual for the word in question. But that too produces nothing helpful, most likely because we have no “official” policy on this word. Next you might consult a good usage book or the usage notes in the American Heritage Dictionary. Finding nothing anywhere, you could decide on a policy for your publication or the document you are working on, if this seems appropriate or desirable.

Q:  Several questions about the citation of abstracts in a reference list.

  • Section 3.11.9 (Abstracts and Other Material Taken From Another Source) states on page 50 that for abstracts published in the society proceedings of a journal, “the name of the society before which the paper was read need not be included” and that “if a[n abstract] number is included, it is placed in brackets along with the ‘abstract’ designation.” What is not made clear is whether including an “abstract” designation is mandatory or voluntary.   

Should an “abstract” designation be included in the citation to an abstract published in the society proceedings of a journal if neither the society’s name nor an abstract number is being provided? In other words, using example 3 of the book as a base, which of the following would be correct?  

  •  . . . Lemli-Opitz syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42(suppl):S627.  (the reference is not identified as being an abstract)

        or

  • . . . Lemli-Opitz syndrome [abstract]. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2001;42(suppl):S627.  (the reference is identified as being an abstract)

If the “[abstract]” designation is not mandatory, is it AMA style to delete it when an author includes it (without an accompanying society name or abstract number) in such a reference?

Also, if an abstract is given an abstract number in the place where it is published, is it considered mandatory or voluntary for its number to be included in the reference citation? The text in the manual says “if a number is included” but the meaning of this is possibly ambiguous (included by the journal in which it was published; or voluntarily included by the author who submits the manuscript as a matter of the submitting author’s preference? It seems most likely that it is the latter, but I’m not certain). 

A:  In order:

  • The if  is meant to signify that the designation as an abstract should be included if it is provided.
  • The second version you provided would be preferred. It’s a nice service to readers to let them know that what is referenced is an abstract.
  • Absolutely not. We would never delete it. It too provides a service to readers, helping them to find the abstract referred to, should they be so inclined.
  • You interpreted the manual correctly—the latter is what is intended.—Cheryl Iverson, MA

July 12, 2012

Questions From Users of the Manual

Filed under: references — amastyleinsider @ 10:23 am
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Q: Does your style require parenthetical page numbers after the superscript citation of the reference number on all references or just direct quotations?

A: The manual does not “require” page numbers with any in-text citations. If an author wishes to cite different page numbers from a single reference source at different places in the text, the page number or page numbers may be included in the superscript citation and the source appears only once in the reference list. The superscript may include more than a single page number and/or citation of more than a single reference, and all spaces are closed up.

  • These patients showed no sign of protective sphincteric adduction.3(p21),9
  • Westman5(pp3,5) reported 8 cases in which vomiting occurred.

An author may also wish to use such a reference to an exact page after citing a quotation, directing the reader to the page on which the quotation appears. See section 3.6  for more details on this point.

Q: When a reference is cited in the text and the author is named as part of the citation, how should a 2-author citation be mentioned? Or a citation involving 3 or more authors?

A: We recommend the following:

  • Doe and Roe8 reported on the survey.
  • Doe et al10 reported on the survey.

Of course it is also acceptable to cite a reference and not give an author’s name (or authors’ names) in the text, or to use “and colleagues” or “and associates” or similar phrases rather than “et al.”  See the examples below and section 3.7 for more on this.

  • Several investigators13-16 corroborated these findings.
  • Friedman and colleagues11 reported on this at the 2011 American Heart Association meeting.—Cheryl Iverson, MA

 

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